Last updated on July 12, 2019

5.  Zhu S, Nishikino T, Hu B, Kojima S, Homma M, Liu J: Molecular architecture of the sheathed polar flagellum in Vibrio alginolyticus, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  114(41):10966-10971, 2017.

3.   Park D, Lara-Tejero M, Waxham MN, Li W, Hu B, Galán JE, Liu J: Visualization of the type III secretion mediated Salmonella-host cell interface using cryo-electron tomography, Elife. 2018 Oct 3;7. pii: e39514. doi: 10.7554/eLife.39514.

6.  Hu B, Lara-Tejero M, Kong Q, Galán JE, Liu J: In situ molecular architecture of the Salmonella type III secretion machine, Cell 168(6):1065-1074.e10, 2017.

7.   Hu B, Margolin W, Molineux IJ, Liu J, Structural remodeling of bacteriophage T4 and host membranes during infection initiation, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,112(35):E4919-28, 2015.​

1.   Chang Y, Moon K, Zhao X, Norris SJ, Motaleb MA, Liu J: Structural insights into flagellar stator-rotor interactions. eLife, accepted.

Electron Tomography at Yale University

2.   Wang C, Tu J, Liu J, Molineux IJ: Structural Dynamics of Bacteriophage P22 Infection Initiation Revealed by Cryo-electron Tomography,Nature Microbiology,2019.

The LIU LAB

Selected Publications

​4.   Chetrit D, Hu B, Christie PJ, Roy CR, Liu J: A Unique Cytoplasmic ATPase Complex Defines the Legionella pneumophila Type IV Secretion Channel, Nat Microbial 3(6):678-686, 2018.​

All Publications


92. Chu J, Zhu S, Herrera C, Henderson J, Liu J, Trent MS, Hoover T: Loss of a cardiolipin synthase in Helicobacter pylori G27 blocks flagellum assembly. J Bacteriol accepted.


91. Chang Y, Moon K, Zhao X, Norris SJ, Motaleb MA, Liu J: Structural insights into flagellar stator-rotor interactions. eLife 2019 Jul 17;8. pii: e48979.


90. Burgoyne T, Heumann J, Morris EP, Knupp C, Liu J, Reedy MK, Taylor KA, Wang K, Luther PK: Three-dimensional structure of the basketweave Z-band in midshipman fish sonic muscle, PNAS 2019 Jul 30;116(31):15534-15539.


89. Zhang K, Qin Z, Chang Y, Liu J, Malkowski MG, Shipa S, Li L, Qiu W, Zhang JR, Li C: Analysis of a flagellar filament cap mutant reveals that HtrA serine protease degrades unfolded flagellin protein in the periplasm of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2019 Jun;111(6):1652-1670. 


88. Zhu S, Schniederberend M, Zhitnitsky D, Jain R, Galán JE, Kazmierczak BI, Liu J: In situ structures of polar and lateral flagella revealed by cryo-electron tomography. J Bacteriol. 2019 Jun 10;201(13). 


87. Wang C, Tu J, Liu J, Molineux IJ: Structural dynamics of bacteriophage P22 infection initiation revealed by cryo-electron tomography, Nature Microbiology, 2019 Jun;4(6):1049-1056.


86. Yan R, Venkatakrishnan SV, Liu J, Bouman CA, Jiang W: MBIR: A cryo-ET 3D reconstruction method that effectively minimizes missing wedge artifacts and restores missing information. J Struct Biol. 2019 Mar 11. pii: S1047-8477(19)30047-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2019.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]


85. Kurniyati K, Liu J, Zhang JR, Min Y, Li C: A pleiotropic role of FlaG in regulating the cell morphogenesis and flagellar homeostasis at the cell poles of Treponema denticola. Cell Microbiol. 2019 Feb;21(2):e12886. 


84. Moon KH, Zhao X, Xu H, Liu J, Motaleb MA: A tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein has profound effects on assembly of periplasmic flagella, morphology and motility of the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2018 Nov;110(4):634-647. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14121. 


83. Li X, Radhakrishnan A, Grushin K, Kasula R, Chaudhuri A, Gomathinayagam S, Krishnakumar SS, Liu J, Rothman JE: Symmetrical organization of proteins under docked synaptic vesicles. FEBS Lett. 2019 Jan;593(2):144-153. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13316.


82. Lara-Tejero M, Qin Z, Hu B, Butan C, Liu J, Galán JE: Role of SpaO in the assembly of the sorting platform of a Salmonellatype III secretion system. PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jan 22;15(1):e1007565. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007565. 


81. Park D, Lara-Tejero M, Waxham MN, Li W, Hu B, Galán JE, Liu J: Visualization of the type III secretion mediated Salmonella-host cell interface using cryo-electron tomography, Elife 2018 Oct 3;7. pii: e39514. doi: 10.7554/eLife.39514.


80. Qin Z, Tu J, Lin T, Norris SJ, Li C, Motaleb MA, Liu J: Cryo-electron tomography of periplasmic flagella in Borrelia burgdorferi reveals a distinct cytoplasmic ATPase complex. PLoS Biol 2018 Nov 9;16(11):e3000050. PMCID: PMC6248999


79. Chetrit D, Hu B, Christie PJ, Roy CR, Liu J: A unique cytoplasmic ATPase complex defines the Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion channel, Nature Microbial 3(6):678-686, 2018.


78. Hu G, Taylor DW, Liu J, Taylor KA: Identification of interfaces involved in weak interactions with application to F-actin-aldolase rafts. J Struct Biol 2018 Mar;201(3):199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Nov 13.​


77. Zhu S, Nishikino T, Kojima S, Homma M, Liu J: The Vibrio H-ring facilitates the outer membrane penetration of the polar sheathed flagellum. J Bacteriol 2018 Oct 10;200(21). pii: e00387-18. 


76. Hu B, Lara-Tejero M, Kong Q, Galán JE, Liu J: In situmolecular architecture of the Salmonella type III secretion machine. Cell 2017, 168(6):1065-1074.e10.


75. Zhu S, Nishikino T, Hu B, Kojima S, Homma M, Liu J: Molecular architecture of the sheathed polar flagellum in Vibrio alginolyticus, PNAS 114(41):10966-10971, 2017.


74. Tu J, Park T, Morado DR, Hughes KT, Molineux IJ, Liu J: Dual host specificity of phage SP6 is facilitated by tailspike rotation. Virology 2017, 507:206-215.


73. Hu G, Liu J, Roux KH, Taylor KA: Structure of Simian Immunodeficiency virus envelope spikes bound with CD4 and monoclonal antibody 36D5. J Virol 2017 Jul 27; 91(16).


72. Krupka M, Rowlett VW, Morado DR, Vitrac H, Schoenemann K, Liu J, and Margolin W:Escherichia coli FtsA forms lipid-bound minirings that antagonize lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Nature Communications 2017 Jul 11; 8: 15957.


71. Zhang W, Zheng W, Toh Y, Betancourt-Solis MA, Tu J, Fan Y, Vakharia VN, Liu J, McNew JA, Jin M, and Tao YJ: Crystal structure of an orthomyxovirus matrix protein reveals mechanisms for self-polymerization and membrane association, PNAS 2017 Aug 8;114(32):8550-8555. ​


70. Kurniyati K, Kelly JF, Vinogradov E, Robotham A, Tu Y, Wang J, Liu J, Logan SM, Li C:A novel glycan modifies the flagellar filament proteins of the oral bacterium Treponema denticola. Mol Microbiol 2017, 103(1):67-85 


69. Qin Z, Lin W, Zhu S, Franco AT, Liu J: Imaging the motility and chemotaxis machineries in Helicobacter pylori by cryo-electron tomography. J Bacteriol 2016, pii: JB.00695-16.


68. Miller MR, Miller KA, Bian J, James ME, Zhang S, Lynch M, Callery PS, Hettick JM, Cockburn A, Liu J, Li C, Crane BR, Charon NW: Spirochaete flagella hook proteins self-catalyse a lysinoalanine covalent crosslink for motility. Nature Microbiol 2016, 1(10):16134.


67. Moon KH, Zhao X, Manne A, Wang J, Yu Z, Liu J, Motaleb MA: Spirochetes flagellar collar proteins have astounding effects in orientation of periplasmic flagella, bacterial shape, motility, and stability of motors in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol 2016, 102(2):336-348.


66. Farley M, Tu J, Kearns DB, Molineux IJ, Liu J: Ultrastructural analysis of bacteriophage Φ29 during infection of Bacillus subtilis. J Struct Biol 2016, S1047-8477(16)30167-8.


65. Morado DR, Hu B, Liu J: Using Tomoauto: A Protocol for High-throughput Automated Cryo-electron Tomography. J Vis Exp 2016, (107): e53608. 


64. Yuan Z, Bai L, Sun J, Georgescu R, Liu J, O'Donnell ME, Li H: Structure of the Eukaryotic replicative CMG helicase suggests a pumpjack motion for translocation. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2016, 23(3):217-24.


63. Xu R, Zhang G, Mai J, Deng X, Segura-Ibarra V, Wu S, Shen J, Liu H, Hu Z, Chen L, Huang Y, Koay E, Huang Y, Liu J, Ensor JE, Blanco E, Liu X, Ferrari M, Shen H: An injectable nanoparticle generator enhances delivery of cancer therapeutics. Nat Biotechnol 2016, 34(4):414-8. 


62. Wunder EA, Figueira CP, Benaroudj N, Hu B, Tong BA, Trajtenberg F, Liu J, Reis MG, Charon NW, Buschiazzo A, Picardeau M, Ko AI: A novel flagellar sheath protein, Fcpa, determines filament coiling, translational motility and virulence for the Leptospiraspirochete. Mol Microbial 2016, 101(3): 457-70. 


61. Zhang K, Liu J, Charon NW, Li C: Hypothetical protein BB0569 is essential for chemotaxis of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol 2015, 198(4):664-72. 


60. Yan R, Edwards TJ, Pankratz LM, Kuhn RJ, Lanman JK, Liu J, and Jiang W: Simultaneous Determination of Sample Thickness, Tilt, and Electron Mean Free Path Using Tomographic Tilt Images Based on Beer-Lambert Law. J Struct Biol 2015, S1047-8477(15)30074-5.


59. Yan R, Edwards TJ, Pankratz LM, Kuhn RJ, Lanman JK, Liu J, and Jiang W: A Fast Cross-validation Method for Alignment of Electron Tomography Images Based on Beer-Lambert Law. J Struct Biol 2015, S1047-8477(15)30082-4.


58. Hu B, Margolin W, Molineux IJ, and Liu J: Structural Remodeling of Bacteriophage T4 and Host Membranes During Infection Initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2015, 112(35):E4919-28.


57. Sultan SZ, Sekar P, Zhao X, Manne A, Liu J, Wooten RM, and Motaleb MA: Motor Rotation Is Essential for the Formation of the Periplasmic Flagellar Ribbon, Cellular Morphology, and Borrelia burgdorferiPersistence within Ixodes scapularis Tick and Murine Hosts. Infect Immune 2015, 83(5):1765-77. 


56. Lin T, Gao L, Zhao X, Liu J, and Norris SJ: Mutations in the Borrelia burgdorferiFlagellar Type III Secretion System Genes fliHand fliIProfoundly Affect Spirochete Flagellar Assembly, Morphology, Motility, Structure, and Cell Division. mBio 2015, 6(3). pii: e00579-15. 


55. Hu B, Morado DR, Margolin W, Rohde JR, Arizmendi O, Picking WL, Picking WD, and Liu J: Visualization of the type III secretion sorting platform of Shigella flexneri. Proc Natl Acad SciU S A 2015, 112(4):1047-1052.


54. Miller KA, Motaleb MA, Liu J, Hu B, Caimano MJ, Miller MR, and Charon NW: Initial Characterization of the FlgE Hook High Molecular Weight Complex of Borrelia burgdorferi.PLoS One 2014, 9(5):e98338.


53. Dutta M, Liu J, Roux KH, and Taylor KA: Visualization of Retroviral Envelope Spikes in Complex with the V3 Loop Antibody 447-52D on Intact Viruses by Cryo-electron tomography. J Virol 2014, 88(21):12265-75. 


52. Halford C, Gonzalez R, Campuzano S, Hu B, Babbitt JT, Liu J, Wang J, Churchill BM, and Haake DA: Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Sensitive Detection of Precursor Ribosomal RNA Using a Novel Electrochemical Biosensing Platform. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013, 57(2):936-43.


51. Hu B, Margolin W, Molineux IJ, and Liu J: The Bacteriophage T7 Virion Undergoes Extensive Structural Remodeling during Infection. Science 2013, 339(6119):576-9.


50. Zhao X., Zhang K, Boquoi T, Hu B, Motaleb MA, Miller K, James M, Charon NW, Manson MD, Norris SJ, Li C, and Liu J: Cryo-Electron Tomography Reveals the Sequential Assembly of Bacterial Flagella in Borrelia burgdorferi. PNAS 2013, 110(35):14390-5.


49. Chen L, Xu Q, Tu J, Ge Y, Liu J, and Liang FT: Increasing RpoS Expression Causes Cell Death in Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS One 2013, 8(12):e83276.


48. Li C, Kurniyati, Hu B, Bian J, Sun J, Zhang W, Liu J, Pan Y, and Li C: Abrogation of neuraminidase reduces biofilm formation, capsule biosynthesis, and virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immune 2012, 80(1):3-13.


47. Liu J, Hu B, Morado DR, Jani S, Manson MD, and Margolin W: Molecular architecture of chemoreceptor arrays revealed by cryoelectron tomography of Escherichia coliminicells. Proc Natl Acad SciU S A 2012, 109(23):E1481-8.


46. Wu S, Liu J, Reedy MC, Perz-Edwards RJ, Tregear RT, Winkler H, Franzini-Armstrong C, Sasaki H, Lucaveche C, Goldman YE, Reedy MK, and Taylor KA: Structural Changes in Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Trapped following a Mechanical Perturbation. PLoS One2012, 7(6):e39422.


45. Raddi G, Morado DR, Yan J, Haake DA, Yang XF, and Liu J: Three-dimensional structures of pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species revealed by cryo-electron tomography. J Bacteriol 2012, 194(6):1299-306.


44. Zhang K, Liu J, Tu Y, Xu H, Charon NW, and Li C: Two CheW coupling proteins are essential in a chemosensory pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbial 2012, 85(4):782-94.


43. Zhang K, Tong BA,Liu J, and Li C: A single-domain FlgJ contributes to flagellar hook and filament formation in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol 2012, 194(4):866-74.


42. Xu H, Raddi G, Liu J, Charon NW, and Li C: Chemoreceptors and flagellar motors are subterminally located in close proximity at the two cell poles in spirochetes. J Bacteriol  2011, 193(10):2652-6.


41. Luther PK, Winkler H, Taylor KA, Zoghbi ME, Craig R, Padrón R, Squire JM, and Liu J: Direct visualization of myosin-binding protein C bridging myosin and actin filaments in intact muscle. PNAS 2011, 108(28):11423-8.


40. Motaleb MA, Pitzer JE, Sultan SZ, and Liu J: A novel gene inactivation system reveals altered periplasmic flagellar orientation in a Borrelia burgdorferifliLmutant. J Bacteriol  2011, 193(13):3324-31.


39. Fu X, Walter MH, Paredes A, Morais MC, and Liu J: The mechanism of DNA ejection in the Bacillus anthracisspore-binding phage 8a revealed by cryo-electron tomography. Virology 2011, 421(2):141-8.


38. Sze CW, Morado DR,Liu J, Charon NW, Xu H, and Li C: Carbon storage regulator A (CsrA(Bb)) is a repressor of Borrelia burgdorferiflagellin protein FlaB. Mol Microbiol  2011, 82(4):851-64.


37. Liu J, Chen CY, Shiomi D Niki, H and Margolin, W: Visualization of bacteriophage P1 infection by cryo-electron tomography of tiny Escherichia coli. Virology 2011, 417(2):304-11.


36. Wu S, Liu J, Reedy MC, Tregear RT, Winkler H, Franzini-Armstrong C, Sasaki H, Lucaveche C, Goldman YE, Reedy MK, and Taylor KA: Electron tomography of cryofixed, isometrically contracting insect flight muscle reveals novel actin-myosin interactions. PLoS One 2010, 5(9):e12643.


35. Liu J, Howell JK, Bradley SD, Zheng Y, Zhou ZH, and Norris SJ: Cellular architecture of Treponema pallidum: novel flagellum, periplasmic cone, and cell envelope as revealed by cryo electron tomography. J Mol Biol 2010, 403(4):546-61.


34. Winkler H, Zhu P, Liu J, Ye F, Roux KH, and Taylor KA: Tomographic subvolume alignment and subvolume classification applied to myosin V and SIV envelope spikes. J Struct Biol 2009, 165(2):64-77.


33. Sanabria H, Swulius MT, Kolodziej SJ, Liu J, and Waxham NM: CaMKII Regulates Actin Assembly and Structure, J Biol Chem 2009, 284(15):9770-80.


32. Wu S, Liu J, Reedy MC, Winkler H, Reedy MK, and Taylor KA: Methods for identifying and averaging variable molecular conformations in tomograms of actively contracting insect flight muscle. J Struct Biol 2009, 168(3):485-502.


31. Liu J, Lin T, Botkin DJ, McCrum E,Winkler H, andNorris SJ:  Intact Flagellar Motor of Borrelia burgdorferiRevealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography: Evidence for Stator Ring Curvature and Rotor/C Ring Assembly Flexion, J Bacteriol 2009, 191(16):5026-36.


30. Hampton CM, Liu J, Taylor DW, DeRosier DJ, andTaylor KA: The 3D Structure of Villin as a Unique F-Actin Crosslinker. Structure 2008, 16(12):1882-91.


29. Liu J, Bartesaghi A, Borgnia M, Sapiro G, and Subramaniam S: Structure of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers in unliganded and CD4-liganded states. Nature 2008, 455:109-113.


28. Ye F, Liu J, Winkler H, and Taylor KA: Integrin aIIbb3 in a membrane environment remains the same height after Mn2+Activation when observed by cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol 2008, 378:976-86.


27. Miao L, Vanderlinde O, Liu J, Grant R, Wouterse A, Philipse A, Stewart M, and Roberts TM: Filament packing constraints generate protrusive force in amoeboid cell motility. PNAS 2008, 105:5390-5.


26. Bartesaghi A, Sprechmann P, Liu J, Randall G, Sapiro G, and Subramaniam S: Classification and 3D averaging with missing wedge-correction in biological electron tomography. J Struct Biol 2008, 162(3):436-50.


25. Dai W, Jia Q, Bortz E, Shah S, Liu J, Atanasov I, Li X, Taylor KA, Sun R, and Zhou ZH: Unique structures in a tumor herpesvirus revealed by cryo-electron tomography and microscopy. J Struct Biol 2008, 161:428-438.


24. Liu J, McBride MJ, and Subramaniam S: Cell-surface filaments of the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae revealed by cryo-electron tomography. J Bacteriol 2007, 189: 7503-7506.


23. Bennett AE, Liu J, Van Ryk D, Bliss D, Arthos J, Henderson RM, and Subramaniam S: Cryo electron tomographic analysis of an HIV neutralizing protein and its complex with native viral gp120. J Biol Chem 2007, 282(38): 27754-27759.


22. Liu J, Taylor DW, Krementsova EB, Trybus KM, and Taylor KA: Three-dimensional structure of the myosin V inhibited state by cryoelectron tomography. Nature 2006, 442:208-211.


21. Zhu P, Liu J, Bess J Jr, Chertova E, Lifson JD, Grise H, Ofek GA, Taylor KA, and Roux KH: Distribution and three-dimensional structure of AIDS virus envelope spikes. Nature 2006, 441:847-852.


20. Liu J, Wu S, Reedy MC, Winkler H, Lucaveche C, Cheng Y, Reedy MK, and Taylor KA: Electron tomography of swollen rigor fibers of insect flight muscle reveals a short and variably angled S2 domain. J Mol Biol 2006, 362:844-860.


19. Tama F, Feig M, Liu J, Brooks CL 3rd, and Taylor KA: The requirement for mechanical coupling between head and S2 domains in smooth muscle myosin ATPase regulation and its implications for dimeric motor function. J Mol Biol 2005, 345:837-854.


18. Liu J, Taylor DW, and Taylor KA: A 3-D reconstruction of smooth muscle alpha-actinin by CryoEM reveals two different conformations at the actin-binding region. J Mol Biol 2004, 338:115-125.


17. Liu J, Reedy MC, Goldman YE, Franzini-Armstrong C, Sasaki H, Tregear RT, Lucaveche C, Winkler H, Baumann BA, Squire JM, Irving TC, Reedy MK, and Taylor KA: Electron tomography of fast frozen, stretched rigor fibers reveals elastic distortions in the myosin crossbridges. J Struct Biol 2004, 147:268-282.


16. Zhu P, Chertova E, Bess J Jr, Lifson JD, Arthur LO, Liu J, Taylor KA, and Roux KH: Electron tomography analysis of envelope glycoprotein trimers on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus visions. PNAS 2003, 100:15812-15817.


15. Liu J, Wendt T, Taylor D, and Taylor KA: Refined model of the 10S conformation of smooth muscle myosin by cryo-electron microscopy 3D image reconstruction. J Mol Biol 2003, 329:963-972.


14. Liu J, Li FH, Wan ZH, Fan HF, Wu XJ, Tamura T, and Tanabe K: Electron crystallographic image-processing investigation and superstructure determination for (Pb0.5Sr0.3Cu0.2)Sr2(Ca0.6Sr0.4)-Cu2Oy. Acta Crystallogr A 2001, 57:540-547.


13. Liu J, Li FH, Wan ZH, Fan HF, Wu XJ, Tamura T, and Tanabe K: Incommensurate modulated structure of "Pb"-1223 determined by combining high resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Materials Transactions JIM 1998, 39:920-926


12. Zou HM, Liu J, Ding DH, Wang RH, Froyen L, and Delaey L: Determination of interfacial residual stress field in an Al-Al2O3composite using convergent-beam electron diffraction technique. Ultramicroscopy 1998 72:1-15.

Chapters, Books, and Reviews 
11. Siegel SD, Liu J, Ton-That H:Biogenesis of the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope.Curr Opin Microbial 2016, 34:31-37. 


10. Farley M, Hu B, Margolin W, Liu J: Minicells, Back in Fashion. J Bacteriol 2016, 198(8):1186-95.


9.   Motaleb MA, Liu J, Wooten RM: Spirochetal Motility and Chemotaxis in the Natural Enzootic Cycle and Development of Lyme disease, Curr Opin Microbial 2015, 28:106-13. 


8.   Prüβ BM, Liu J, Higgs PI, and Thompson LK: Lessons in Fundamental Mechanisms and Diverse Adaptations from the 2015 Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction Meeting. J Bacteriol 2015, 197(19):3028-40.


7.   Zhao X, Norris SJ, and Liu J: Molecular Architecture of Bacterial Flagellar Motor in Cells. Biochemistry 2014, 53(27):4323-33. 


6.   Charon NW, Cockburn A, Li C, Liu J, Miller KA, Miller MR, Motaleb MA, and Wolgemuth CW: The Unique Paradigm of Spirochete Motility and Chemotaxis. Annu Rev Microbiol 2012, 66:349-70.


5.   Liu J, Wright ER, and Winkler H: 3D Visualization of HIV Virions by Cryoelectron Tomography. Methods Enzymol 2010, 483:267-90.


4.   Goldstein SF, Li, C.,Liu, J., Miller M, Motaleb, M., Norris, S.J., Silversmith, R,E,, Wolgemuthm, C.W., and Charon, N.W.: The Chic Motility and Chemotaxis of Borrelia burgdorferi. In: Borrelia: Molecular and Cellular Biology, Edited by D. Scott Samuels, Caister Academic Press, 2010.


3.   Subramaniam S, Bartesaghi A, Liu J, Bennett AE, and Sougrat R: Electron Tomography of Viruses. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2007, 5:596-602.

2.   Taylor KA, Liu J, Winkler H: Localization and Classification of Repetitive Structures in Electron Tomograms of Paracrystalline Assemblies. In:  Electron Tomography: Methods for Three-dimensional Visualization of Structures in the Cell, Edited by J. Frank, Springer-Verlag, 2006.


1.   Liu J, Wu XJ, Li FH, Wan ZH, Fan HF, Tamura T, and Tanabe K: Modulated Structure Determination of Pb-1212 and Pb-1223 by Electron Crystallographic Image Processing. In: Electron Crystallography. Edited byD. L. Dorset, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997.